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spring01

小陈爱吃糖① 2022-08-06 10:14:30 阅读数:3 评论数:0 点赞数:0 收藏数:0

目录

一、对spring的理解

二、spring中ioc的特点

2.1控制反转

 2.2注入依赖

方式① set注入

 方式② 构造注入

方式③ 自动装配

三、spring与web容器的整合

一、对spring的理解

spring是一个开源框架,它由Rod Johnson 创建。它是为了解决企业应用开发的复杂性而创建的。

目的:解决企业应用开发的复杂性

功能:使用基本的JavaBean代替EJB,并提供了更多的企业应用功能

范围:任何Java应用

简单来说,Spring是一个轻量级的控制反转(IoC)和面向切面(AOP)的容器框架。

二、spring中ioc的特点

建一个maven项目

pom.xml

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/maven-v4_0_0.xsd">
<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
<groupId>com.cdl</groupId>
<artifactId>T280_spring</artifactId>
<packaging>war</packaging>
<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
<name>T280_spring Maven Webapp</name>
<url>http://maven.apache.org</url>
<!-- 将当前项目所用的jar包依赖版本定义在外部目的在于所有jar
包版本进行统一管理-->
<properties>
<spring.version>5.0.1.RELEASE</spring.version>
<javax.servlet.version>4.0.0</javax.servlet.version>
<junit.version>4.12</junit.version>
</properties>
<dependencies>
<dependency>
<groupId>junit</groupId>
<artifactId>junit</artifactId>
<version>3.8.1</version>
<scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
<!-- 2、导入spring依赖 -->
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-context</artifactId>
<version>${spring.version}</version>
</dependency>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-aspects</artifactId>
<version>${spring.version}</version>
</dependency>
<!-- 5.1、junit -->
<dependency>
<groupId>junit</groupId>
<artifactId>junit</artifactId>
<version>${junit.version}</version>
<scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
<!-- 5.2、servlet -->
<dependency>
<groupId>javax.servlet</groupId>
<artifactId>javax.servlet-api</artifactId>
<version>${javax.servlet.version}</version>
<scope>provided</scope>
</dependency>
</dependencies>
<build>
<finalName>T280_spring</finalName>
<plugins>
<plugin>
<groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
<artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
<version>3.7.0</version>
<configuration>
<source>1.8</source>
<target>1.8</target>
<encoding>UTF-8</encoding>
</configuration>
</plugin>
</plugins>
</build>
</project>

web.xml

<web-app xmlns="http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_3_1.xsd"
version="3.1">
<display-name>Archetype Created Web Application</display-name>
</web-app>

2.1控制反转

建一个com.cdl.biz的包

UserBiz

package com.cdl.biz;
/**
* 用户业务类
* @author Lenovo
*
*/
public interface UserBiz {
void list();
}

建一个com.cdl.biz.impl的包

UserBizImpl1

package com.cdl.biz.impl;
import com.cdl.biz.UserBiz;
public class UserBizImpl1 implements UserBiz{
@Override
public void list() {
System.out.println("查询用户数据。。按照年龄排序。");
}
}

UserBizImpl2

package com.cdl.biz.impl;
import com.cdl.biz.UserBiz;
public class UserBizImpl2 implements UserBiz{
@Override
public void list() {
System.out.println("查询用户数据。。按照入职时间排序。");
}
}

建一个com.cdl.web的包

OrderAction

package com.cdl.web;
import com.cdl.biz.UserBiz;
import com.cdl.biz.impl.UserBizImpl1;
public class OrderAction {
private UserBiz userBiz = new UserBizImpl1();
public void list() {
userBiz.list();
}
}

UserAction

package com.cdl.web;
import com.cdl.biz.UserBiz;
import com.cdl.biz.impl.UserBizImpl1;
public class UserAction {
private UserBiz userBiz = new UserBizImpl1();
public void list() {
userBiz.list();
}
}

常规做法即运用spring之前的处理方法

* 需求:
 * 同时在用户模块,订单模块拿到所有的用户数据
 * 
 * 需求变更1:
 * 同时在用户模块,订单模块拿到所有的用户数据,并且要求用户数据是通过年龄排序的
 * 对应策略:修改UserBiz中list方法,添加排序功能
 * 
 * 需求变更2:
 * 同时在用户模块,订单模块拿到所有的用户数据,并且要求用户数据是通过注册时间排序的
 * 对应策略,修改UserBiz中list方法,添加排序功能,按照时间点排序

 总结:
 * 最原始:频繁修改业务层biz的代码
 * 多实现:凡是涉及到用户业务层调用的地方,都需要修改代码

运用spring处理

 将spring的配置文件加入

spring-context.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:aop="http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop"
xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop/spring-aop-4.3.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-4.3.xsd">
</beans>

注意:一定要在有网络的情况下进行,否则约束不生效

IOC的主要作用管理整个项目的Javabean:依靠依赖注入、控制反转的特点进行管理

 spring-context.xml


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:aop="http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop"
xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop/spring-aop-4.3.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-4.3.xsd">
<!-- IOC的主要作用管理整个项目的Javabean:依靠依赖注入、控制反转的特点进行管理 -->
<!-- <bean class="com.cdl.biz.impl.UserBizImpl1" id="userBiz1"></bean> -->
<bean class="com.cdl.biz.impl.UserBizImpl2" id="userBiz2"></bean>
<bean class="com.cdl.web.UserAction" id="userAction">
<property name="userBiz" ref="userBiz2"></property>
</bean>
<bean class="com.cdl.web.OrderAction" id="orderAction"></bean>
</beans>

UserAction

package com.cdl.web;
import com.cdl.biz.UserBiz;
import com.cdl.biz.impl.UserBizImpl1;
public class UserAction {
//private UserBiz userBiz = new UserBizImpl1();
private UserBiz userBiz;
public void list() {
userBiz.list();
}
public UserBiz getUserBiz() {
return userBiz;
}
public void setUserBiz(UserBiz userBiz) {
this.userBiz = userBiz;
}
}

建一个com.cdl.ioc的包

在里面建一个Demo1的类

建模,打印com.cdl.biz.impl.UserBizImpl2中的语句

package com.cdl.ioc;
import org.springframework.context.support.ClassPathXmlApplicationContext;
import com.cdl.web.UserAction;
public class Demo1 {
@SuppressWarnings("resource")
public static void main(String[] args) {
//建模
ClassPathXmlApplicationContext context = new ClassPathXmlApplicationContext("/spring-context.xml");
UserAction userAction = (UserAction) context.getBean("userAction");
userAction.list();
}
}

 运行结果:

 可见 能拿到

总结

1.对spring框架的配置文件进行建模,建模之后spring-context.xml中所有的Javabean信息
 都会加载进spring容器的上下文中
 2.上下文中就包含了spring-context.xml 所有对象

 测试orderaction也拿到相同结果,配置和orderaction都如useraction一致修改

package com.cdl.web;
import com.cdl.biz.UserBiz;
import com.cdl.biz.impl.UserBizImpl1;
public class OrderAction {
//private UserBiz userBiz = new UserBizImpl1();
private UserBiz userBiz;
public void list() {
userBiz.list();
}
public UserBiz getUserBiz() {
return userBiz;
}
public void setUserBiz(UserBiz userBiz) {
this.userBiz = userBiz;
}
}

 

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:aop="http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop"
xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop/spring-aop-4.3.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-4.3.xsd">
<!-- IOC的主要作用管理整个项目的Javabean:依靠依赖注入、控制反转的特点进行管理 -->
<!-- <bean class="com.cdl.biz.impl.UserBizImpl1" id="userBiz1"></bean> -->
<bean class="com.cdl.biz.impl.UserBizImpl2" id="userBiz2"></bean>
<bean class="com.cdl.web.UserAction" id="userAction">
<property name="userBiz" ref="userBiz2"></property>
</bean>
<bean class="com.cdl.web.OrderAction" id="orderAction">
<property name="userBiz" ref="userBiz2"></property>
</bean>
</beans>
package com.cdl.ioc;
import org.springframework.context.support.ClassPathXmlApplicationContext;
import com.cdl.web.OrderAction;
import com.cdl.web.UserAction;
/**
* 1.对spring框架的配置文件进行建模,建模之后spring-context.xml中所有的Javabean信息
* 都会加载进spring容器的上下文中
* 2.上下文中就包含了spring-context.xml 所有对象
* @author Lenovo
*
*/
public class Demo1 {
@SuppressWarnings("resource")
public static void main(String[] args) {
//建模
ClassPathXmlApplicationContext context = new ClassPathXmlApplicationContext("/spring-context.xml");
UserAction userAction = (UserAction) context.getBean("userAction");
userAction.list();
OrderAction orderAction = (OrderAction) context.getBean("orderAction");
orderAction.list();
}
}

结果:

 若是要按年龄排序,就只需要修改配置文件就OK了

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:aop="http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop"
xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop/spring-aop-4.3.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-4.3.xsd">
<!-- IOC的主要作用管理整个项目的Javabean:依靠依赖注入、控制反转的特点进行管理 -->
<bean class="com.cdl.biz.impl.UserBizImpl1" id="userBiz2"></bean>
<bean class="com.cdl.web.UserAction" id="userAction">
<property name="userBiz" ref="userBiz2"></property>
</bean>
<bean class="com.cdl.web.OrderAction" id="orderAction">
<property name="userBiz" ref="userBiz2"></property>
</bean>
</beans>

 结论:IOC特点(控制反转):将创建对象的权利反转给spring容器来完成

 2.2注入依赖

方式① set注入

 

 

 可见报错的原因就是找不到set的方法

接下来用一个例子(多注入三个属性)来更深入的了解

UserAction

package com.cdl.web;
import java.util.List;
import com.cdl.biz.UserBiz;
import com.cdl.biz.impl.UserBizImpl1;
public class UserAction {
//private UserBiz userBiz = new UserBizImpl1();
private UserBiz userBiz;
public UserBiz getUserBiz() {
return userBiz;
}
public void setUserBiz(UserBiz userBiz) {
this.userBiz = userBiz;
}
private String name;
private int age;
private List<String> hobby;
public String getName() {
return name;
}
public void setName(String name) {
this.name = name;
}
public int getAge() {
return age;
}
public void setAge(int age) {
this.age = age;
}
public List<String> getHobby() {
return hobby;
}
public void setHobby(List<String> hobby) {
this.hobby = hobby;
}
public void list() {
System.out.println(name);
System.out.println(age);
System.out.println(hobby);
userBiz.list();
}
}
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:aop="http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop"
xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop/spring-aop-4.3.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-4.3.xsd">
<!-- IOC的主要作用管理整个项目的Javabean:依靠依赖注入、控制反转的特点进行管理 -->
<bean class="com.cdl.biz.impl.UserBizImpl1" id="userBiz2"></bean>
<bean class="com.cdl.web.UserAction" id="userAction">
<property name="userBiz" ref="userBiz2"></property>
<!--set注入 -->
<property name="age" value="22"></property>
<property name="name" value="cdl"></property>
<property name="hobby">
<list>
<value>篮球</value>
<value>足球</value>
<value>唱歌</value>
</list>
</property>
</bean>
<bean class="com.cdl.web.OrderAction" id="orderAction">
<property name="userBiz" ref="userBiz2"></property>
</bean>
</beans>
package com.cdl.ioc;
import org.springframework.context.support.ClassPathXmlApplicationContext;
import com.cdl.web.OrderAction;
import com.cdl.web.UserAction;
/**
* 1.对spring框架的配置文件进行建模,建模之后spring-context.xml中所有的Javabean信息
* 都会加载进spring容器的上下文中
* 2.上下文中就包含了spring-context.xml 所有对象
* @author Lenovo
*
* IOC特点(控制反转):将创建对象的权利反转给spring容器来完成
*
*
*/
public class Demo1 {
@SuppressWarnings("resource")
public static void main(String[] args) {
//建模
ClassPathXmlApplicationContext context = new ClassPathXmlApplicationContext("/spring-context.xml");
UserAction userAction = (UserAction) context.getBean("userAction");
userAction.list();
OrderAction orderAction = (OrderAction) context.getBean("orderAction");
orderAction.list();
}
}

结果:

 方式② 构造注入

OrderAction

package com.cdl.web;
import java.util.List;
import com.cdl.biz.UserBiz;
import com.cdl.biz.impl.UserBizImpl1;
/**
* 依赖注入的三种方式:
* 1.set注入
* 2.构造注入
* 3.自动装配
* byName
* byType
* @author Lenovo
*
*/
public class OrderAction {
//private UserBiz userBiz = new UserBizImpl1();
private UserBiz userBiz;
public UserBiz getUserBiz() {
return userBiz;
}
public void setUserBiz(UserBiz userBiz) {
this.userBiz = userBiz;
}
private String name;
private int age;
private List<String> hobby;
public OrderAction(String name, int age, List<String> hobby) {
super();
this.name = name;
this.age = age;
this.hobby = hobby;
}
public OrderAction() {
super();
// TODO Auto-generated constructor stub
}
public void list() {
System.out.println(name);
System.out.println(age);
System.out.println(hobby);
userBiz.list();
}
}
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:aop="http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop"
xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop/spring-aop-4.3.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-4.3.xsd">
<!-- IOC的主要作用管理整个项目的Javabean:依靠依赖注入、控制反转的特点进行管理 -->
<bean class="com.cdl.biz.impl.UserBizImpl1" id="userBiz2"></bean>
<!--set注入 -->
<bean class="com.cdl.web.UserAction" id="userAction">
<property name="userBiz" ref="userBiz2"></property>
<property name="age" value="22"></property>
<property name="name" value="cdl"></property>
<property name="hobby">
<list>
<value>篮球</value>
<value>足球</value>
<value>唱歌</value>
</list>
</property>
</bean>
<!-- 构造注入 -->
<bean class="com.cdl.web.OrderAction" id="orderAction">
<property name="userBiz" ref="userBiz2"></property>
<constructor-arg name="name" value="cdl"></constructor-arg>
<constructor-arg name="age" value="23"></constructor-arg>
<constructor-arg name="hobby">
<list>
<value>篮球1</value>
<value>足球1</value>
<value>唱歌1</value>
</list>
</constructor-arg>
</bean>
</beans>

在Demo1运行

方式③ 自动装配

将set和构造的注入 注释

byType不报错 byName报错

 

 

 

byType报错 byName不报错

 

 

自动装配
 default-autowire="byName" 
byName:是通过spring管理的bean对象的ID进行查找,如果找不到,则注入失败,反之成功
 byType:是通过spring管理的bean对象的接口实现类进行查找,如果没有或者2个以上,则注入失败,反之成功

三、spring与web容器的整合

分析:

spring与web容器的整合原理
    why:建模的过程是十分耗时的
  解决问题:
 1.建模必不可少
 2.建模只保障只执行一次
 3.建模后期望在每一个servlet都能够拿到spring的上下文对象ClassPathXmlApplicationContext
  how:
  1.监听器的初始化方法 只执行一次
  2.spring的上下文要存放在Tomcat上下文中

建一个包com.cdl.ioc.listener

package com.cdl.ioc.listener;
import javax.servlet.ServletContext;
import javax.servlet.ServletContextEvent;
import javax.servlet.ServletContextListener;
import org.springframework.context.support.ClassPathXmlApplicationContext;
public class SpringLoadListener implements ServletContextListener{
@Override
public void contextInitialized(ServletContextEvent sce) {
System.out.println("初始化执行");
ServletContext servletContext = sce.getServletContext();
String springConfigLocation = servletContext.getInitParameter("springConfigLocation");
System.out.println(springConfigLocation+"...");
//拿到spring上下文
ClassPathXmlApplicationContext context = new ClassPathXmlApplicationContext("/spring-context.xml");
//将spring的上下文保存在Tomcat上下文中
servletContext.setAttribute("springContext", context);
}
}

在com.cdl.ioc中建一个类DemoServlet

package com.cdl.ioc;
import java.io.IOException;
import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.annotation.WebServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
import org.springframework.context.support.ClassPathXmlApplicationContext;
import com.cdl.web.UserAction;
/**
* spring与web容器的整合原理
* why:建模的过程是十分耗时的
* 解决问题:
* 1.建模必不可少
* 2.建模只保障只执行一次
* 3.建模后期望在每一个servlet都能够拿到spring的上下文对象ClassPathXmlApplicationContext
* how:
* 1.监听器的初始化方法 只执行一次
* 2.spring的上下文要存放在Tomcat上下文中
* @author Lenovo
*
*/
@WebServlet("/springDemo")
public class DemoServlet extends HttpServlet{
@Override
protected void service(HttpServletRequest arg0, HttpServletResponse arg1){
//ClassPathXmlApplicationContext context = new ClassPathXmlApplicationContext("/spring-context.xml");
ClassPathXmlApplicationContext context = (ClassPathXmlApplicationContext) arg0.getServletContext().getAttribute("springContext");
UserAction userAction = (UserAction) context.getBean("userAction");
userAction.list();
}
}

spring-context.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:aop="http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop"
xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop/spring-aop-4.3.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-4.3.xsd">
<!-- IOC的主要作用管理整个项目的Javabean:依靠依赖注入、控制反转的特点进行管理 -->
<bean class="com.cdl.biz.impl.UserBizImpl1" id="userBiz"></bean>
<bean class="com.cdl.biz.impl.UserBizImpl1" id="userBiz1"></bean>
<!--set注入 -->
<bean class="com.cdl.web.UserAction" id="userAction">
<property name="userBiz" ref="userBiz2"></property>
<property name="age" value="22"></property>
<property name="name" value="cdl"></property>
<property name="hobby">
<list>
<value>篮球</value>
<value>足球</value>
<value>唱歌</value>
</list>
</property>
</bean>
<!-- 构造注入 -->
<bean class="com.cdl.web.OrderAction" id="orderAction">
<property name="userBiz" ref="userBiz2"></property>
<constructor-arg name="name" value="cdl"></constructor-arg>
<constructor-arg name="age" value="23"></constructor-arg>
<constructor-arg name="hobby">
<list>
<value>篮球1</value>
<value>足球1</value>
<value>唱歌1</value>
</list>
</constructor-arg>
</bean>
<!-- 自动装配 -->
</beans>

web.xml

<web-app xmlns="http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_3_1.xsd"
version="3.1">
<display-name>Archetype Created Web Application</display-name>
<context-param>
<param-name>springConfigLocation</param-name>
<param-value>/applicationContext.xml</param-value>
</context-param>
<listener>
<listener-class>com.cdl.ioc.listener.SpringLoadListener</listener-class>
</listener>
</web-app>

结果:

 

版权声明
本文为[小陈爱吃糖①]所创,转载请带上原文链接,感谢
https://blog.csdn.net/weixin_62735525/article/details/126164581

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