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Tsinghua senior students stayed up for 20 days to sort out the basic chapter of "database mysql" [Xiaobai must see!]

Programmer two black 2022-01-15 04:45:16 阅读数:9 评论数:0 点赞数:0 收藏数:0

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Write at the top

You may know that database is a very important technology . Database is also required for software testing . Of course , The level of the database also directly determines the upper limit of our salary . therefore , I decided to systematically organize a set of MySQL The article . I hope I can sum up and sort it out at the same time , It can also help everyone . Here's the picture , yes MySQL The overall content outline of the series .

One 、 Why study databases

Usually, most of our data is stored in Excel In the table , Or have learned Python, Data can be stored in a list 、 aggregate 、 In the dictionary . Then they have many defects , For example, data is easy to lose ; When the amount of data is large , Difficult to find . that , Now We can use the database . Database is software specially used to manage data . It has two advantages :① Data persistence ② Complete and unified data management , Easy to query .

Two 、 Database related concepts

1、 DB
database (Database), A container for holding a set of organized data .

2、DBMS
Database management system (Database Management System), Also known as database software ( product ), Used to manage DB Data in . such as :MySQL、Oracle、DB2、SqlServer etc. . Most companies use MySQL, Because it's open source , Free of charge .

3、SQL
Structured query language (Structure Query Language), Used for and DBMS The language of communication , A set of operation commands specially established for the database .
SQL advantage : ① Almost all DBMS All support SQL Language ② Easy to learn ③ Can be very complex and
Advanced database operation .

Take the library for example , The collaborative relationship between the three is shown in the figure below :

3、 ... and 、 Characteristics of data storage in database

1. Put the data in the table , Put the watch in the library ;
2. There can be multiple tables in a database , Every watch has a name , To identify yourself . Table names are unique ;
3. Table has some characteristics , These properties define how data is stored in tables , similar Python in “ class " The design of the ;
4. Table consists of columns , We also call it fields . All tables are made up of one or more columns , Each column is similar to Python Medium " attribute ”;
5. The data in the table is stored by row , Each line is similar to Python Medium " object ".

Four 、 Design specifications for tables and Libraries

1、 Naming specification

1) The library name can only use English letters , Numbers , Underline , And start with an English letter , Capital
2) Table names can only use letters 、 Numbers and underscores , All in lowercase
3) The naming is concise and clear ( The length cannot exceed 32 Characters )
4) Try not to use keywords for field names ( Such as type,order etc. )
5) Use as little storage space as possible to store the data of a field

2、 Grammatical norms

1) Case insensitive , But it is recommended that keywords be capitalized , Table name 、 Column names in lowercase
2) It's better to end each command with a semicolon
3) Every command is as needed , You can indent Or a new line
4) notes

  • Single-line comments :# Note text
  • Single-line comments :-- Note text
  • Multiline comment :/* Note text */

3、 Three paradigms of database

1) First normal form : Columns cannot be subdivided
2) Second normal form : There is a primary key , Non primary key fields depend on the primary key ( Properties are completely dependent on the primary key ).
3) Third normal form : The data table cannot have redundant fields ( Non primary key fields cannot depend on each other )

The three paradigms are the basic concepts of general database design , Less redundancy can be established 、 A well structured database . If there are special circumstances , Special treatment, of course , The most important thing in database design is to see the requirements and performance , demand > performance > Table structure . So we can't blindly pursue the paradigm to build a database .

4、SQL Language classification of

1)DQL(Data Query Language): Data query language select
2)DML(Data Manipulate Language): Data operation language insert 、update、delete
3).DDL(Data Define Languge): Data definition language create、drop、alter
4)TCL(Transaction Control Language): Transaction control language commit、rollback

5、 ... and 、 First time to know MySQL

1、MySQL Installation and introduction

MySQL Can be installed locally , It can also be installed on the server . For example, we need to build a test library locally , Or you want to operate the database on the server through the client , That can be operated locally ; If the development environment is on the ECS , Then you can operate directly on the server . that , How do the client and server work together , Here's the picture :

  • Local (Windows or Mac) | Cloud server (Linux)
    - Insert picture description here
  • notes : Here, the client uses Navicat, If you need to crack and install MySQL Documentation of services , Official account : Programmer two black , Add little sister wechat , Can get . It's not detailed here .

2、MySQL Start and stop of service

Start command :net start mysql
Stop the order :net stop mysql

  • notes : open cmd window , Be sure to use the administrator identity !

3、MySQL Service login and logout

Mode one : Terminal window login

#mysql 【-h Host name -P Port number 】-u user name -p password
Login command :mysql -hlocalhost -uroot -p
Exit command :exit or Ctrl + c
 Insert picture description here
notes :Windows The default password for installation is empty .

Mode two : client (Navicat) Sign in

 Insert picture description here
4、 MySQL Common commands for

  • show databases; View all databases

  • use Library name ; Open the specified The library of

  • show tables ; Show all tables in the library

  • show tables from Library name ; Show all tables in the specified library

  • create table Table name (

  • Field name Field type ,

  • Field name Field type

  • ); Create table

  • desc Table name ; View the structure of the specified table

  • select * from Table name ; Show all the data in the table

Check the version of the server

Mode one : Log in to mysql Server side
select version();
Mode two : No sign in to mysql Server side
mysql --version
or
mysql --V


good , That's all for today , The biggest insight is that no matter what language you learn , We must lay a good foundation , There will be fewer detours in the later stage . While realizing the function , Consider performance . This article is mainly for the first time MySQL, We learn MySQL Take the first step . Continue to study tomorrow SQL Of DOL、DML、DDL、DCL. Come on together !

Finally, for the convenience of everyone's study , I specially prepared a 13G Super practical dry goods learning resources , The content involved is very comprehensive .


Include , Software learning Roadmap ,50 Video of class for many days 、16 It's a real assault project ,80 More than one software for testing ,37 A test document ,70 A software testing related problem ,40 Test experience level article , Thousands of test questions to share , also 2021 Software testing interview Dictionary , There's also a selection of resumes for software testing jobs , I hope that's helpful ……

Follow my official account :【 Programmer two black 】 You can get this information !

If you don't want to experience it again, you can't find information when you study on your own , No one answers the question , If you insist on giving up after a few days , You can join our group :785128166 Let's talk about it , There are also various software testing materials and technical exchanges .

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