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Principles of Computer Composition -- Chapter 1 Introduction to system notes and exercise answers

Yiye / Qingcheng 2021-01-11 21:00:52 阅读数:9 评论数:0 点赞数:0 收藏数:0

Personally feel , Study at home , Free time to write a blog to sum up learning knowledge , Mobile phone tiktok is more meaningful than Kwai .

1. Compare the characteristics of digital computer and analog computer .
2. How digital computers are classified ? What is the basis of classification ?
3. What are the main applications of digital computer ?
4. What is the main design idea of von Neumann computer ? What are the components of it ?
5. What is storage capacity ? What is a unit address ? What is a data word ? What is an instruction word ?
6. What is instruction ? What is a program ?
7. Instructions and data are in memory , How do computers distinguish between data and instructions .
8. What is memory ? What is external storage ? What is? cpu? What is an adapter ? The function of the device is also described
9. What kinds of computer system software include ? Explain their use .
10. Explain the evolution of software development .
11. How to divide modern computer system into several levels ? What impact does this hierarchical view have on computer design ?
12. Why software can be turned into hardware , Hardware can be turned into software ? What is the medium for this transformation ?
13.CPU What are the performance indicators of ? What is the concept ?

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1、

Compare content digital computer Analog computer
Data representation Numbers 0 and 1 voltage
Calculation method Number counting Voltage combinations and measurements
The control mode Program control On the disk
precision high low
Data storage capacity Big Small
Logical judgment strong nothing

2. How digital computers are classified ? What is the basis of classification ?
Digital computers are further divided into special Computers and Universal Computer . Special purpose and general purpose are based on the efficiency of the computer 、 Speed 、 Price 、 According to the economy and applicability of operation .

 

3. What are the main applications of digital computer ?
General purpose computers can be divided into supercomputers , The mainframe 、 Service machine 、PC machine , Six types of single chip microcomputer and multi core computer . The difference is in volume , Simplicity 、 Power loss 、 Performance indicators 、 Data storage capacity 、 Command system size and machine price .
Supercomputers are used in scientific computing .
Single chip microcomputer is a computer made of only one integrated circuit .

 

4. What is the main design idea of von Neumann computer ? What components does he include ?
The design idea is : The number system of the digital computer is binary ; The computer should execute in the order of the program . The main components are : Arithmetic unit 、 controller 、 Memory 、 Input and output devices .

 

5. What is storage capacity ? What is a unit address ? What is a data word ? What is an instruction word ?
Memory, all of it The total number of storage units It's called the storage capacity of memory .
In memory, multiple triggers that hold a number are called a storage unit . Memory is made up of many storage units , Each storage unit has a number , It's called address .
Because the information that the computer uses has both instruction and data , So computer word length can represent instructions or data , If A word represents the data to be processed , It is called data word , If it's an order , They are called instruction words .

 

6. What is instruction ? What is a program ?

The arithmetic unit can only complete four arithmetic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division and other auxiliary operations . Every basic operation is called an instruction , And a sequence of instructions to solve a problem , A computational program called this problem .

 

7. Instructions and data are in memory , How do computers distinguish between data and instructions .
Generally speaking , The information flow read out from memory in the fetch cycle is the instruction flow , It flows to the controller ; The flow of information read from memory during the actuator cycle is data flow . It flows to the controller .

 

8. What is memory ? What is external storage ? What is? cpu? What is an adapter ? The function of the device is also described
Computer equipped with a larger storage capacity of disk memory and optical disk memory , It's called external storage
Relatively speaking , Semiconductor memory , It's called memory . The adapter is an interface converter , It can be a stand-alone hardware interface device , Allow hardware or electronic interfaces to connect to other hardware or electronic interfaces , It can also be an information interface . The adapter acts as a converter , It can ensure that the peripheral devices send and receive information in the form required by the characteristics of the computer system .

 

9. What kinds of computer system software include ? Explain their use .
There are four categories ① All kinds of service programs , Like diagnostic procedures 、 Troubleshooting procedures 、 Practice the program
② Language program , Such as assembler 、 compiler 、 Interpretation procedure .
③ operating system ④ Database management system .

 

10. Explain the evolution of software development .
In the early days of computers , People write programs directly in machine language ( Manual programming ) It's also called destination program ,
For the convenience of programming and improving the efficiency of the machine . Write programs with instructions represented by special symbols . Assembly language and created a program , It's called assembler .
In order to further realize the automation of the program and facilitate the communication of the program , People have created a variety of algorithmic languages close to mathematical languages . such as C Language ,c++,Java etc.

 

11. How to divide modern computer system into several levels ? What impact does this hierarchical view have on computer design ?

 The first 5 level High level language level ( compiler )
The first 4 level Assembly language level ( assembler )
The first 3 level Operating system level ( operating system )
The first 2 level General machine level ( Microprograms )
The first 1 level Microprogramming level ( Logic level ) Executed directly by hardware 

obviously , Using the concept and technology of using a series of stages to form a computer , It provides a good structure and mechanism for understanding how computers are composed . And designing computers with this hierarchical view , It is also very helpful to ensure a good system structure .

 

12. Why software can be turned into hardware , Hardware can be turned into software ? What is the medium for this transformation ?
Because any operation can be done by software , It can also be implemented by hardware . The execution of any instruction can be accomplished by hardware , Also, software can . Now we can put a lot of complicated 、 Common programs are made into firmware , Functionally, it's software , It's hardware in form .

 

13.CPU What are the performance indicators of ? What is the concept ?

Main frequency / Clock cycle : CPU The working rhythm of is controlled by the master clock , The master clock constantly generates a fixed frequency clock , The frequency of the master clock f Call CPU The main frequency of .( The reciprocal of the dominant frequency is called CPU Clock cycle )
CPU execution time : Express CPU The time taken to perform a general procedure CPU Time .

CPU Execution time of = CPU Number of clock cycles × CPU Clock cycle

CPI  Represents the number of cycles per instruction , The average number of clock cycles required to execute an instruction .

CPI = Necessary to perform a program CPU Number of clock cycles ÷ The number of instructions the program contains

MIPS  Indicates the average number of million fixed-point instructions executed per second .

MIPS = Number of instructions ÷ ( Program execution time * 10`6)

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