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【数据结构】69_二叉树的线索化实现

TianSong 2020-02-14 16:36:52 阅读数:14 评论数:0 点赞数:0 收藏数:0

什么是线索化二叉树

  • 将二叉树转换为双向链表的过程(非线性 → 线性
  • 能够反映某种二叉树的遍历次序(结点的先后访问次序

    • 利用结点的 right 指针指向遍历中的后继结点
    • 利用结点的 left 指针指向遍历中的前驱结点

如何对二叉树进行线索化

思维过程

image.png

二叉树的线索化

image.png

课程目标

  • 新增功能函数 traversal(order, queue)
  • 新增遍历方式 BTTraversal::LevelOrder
  • 新增公有函数 BTreeNode<T> *thread(BTTraversal order)

新增功能函数

编程实验:新增功能函数

void traversal(BTTraversal order, LinkQueue<BTreeNode<T>*> &queue) const
{
switch (order)
{
case PreOrder:
PreOrderTraversal(root(), queue);
break;
case InOrder:
InOrderTraversal(root(), queue);
break;
case PostOrder:
PostOrderTraversal(root(), queue);
break;
}
}

新增层次遍历

层次遍历算法小结

  • 将根结点压入队列中
  • 访问队头元素指向的二叉树结点
  • 队头元素弹出,将队头元素的孩子结点压入队列
  • 判断队列是否为空(非空:转第2条;空:结束)

层次遍历算法示例

image.png

image.png

编程实验:层次遍历算法

void LevelOrderTraversal(BTreeNode<T> *node, LinkQueue<BTreeNode<T>*> &queue) const
{
if (node != nullptr)
{
LinkQueue<BTreeNode<T>*> tmp;
tmp.add(node);
while (tmp.length() > 0)
{
BTreeNode<T> *n = tmp.front();
if (n->left != nullptr)
{
tmp.add(n->left);
}
if (n->right != nullptr)
{
tmp.add(n->right);
}
tmp.remove();
queue.add(n);
}
}
}

新增线索化实现

函数接口设计

  • BTreeNode<T> *thread(BTTraversal order)

    • 根据参数 order 选择线索化的次序(先序,中序,后序 ,层次)
    • 返回线索化之后指向链表首结点的指针
    • 线索化执行结束之后对应的二叉树变为空树

线索化流程

image.png

队列中结点的连接算法

image.png

编程实验:二叉树的线索化

BTreeNode<T> *connect(LinkQueue<BTreeNode<T>*> &queue)
{
BTreeNode<T> *ret = nullptr;
if (queue.length() > 0)
{
ret = queue.front();
BTreeNode<T> *slider = queue.front();
queue.remove();
slider->left = nullptr;
while (queue.length() > 0)
{
slider->right = queue.front();
queue.front()->left = slider;
slider = queue.front();
queue.remove();
}
slider->right = nullptr;
}
return ret;
}
BTreeNode<T> *thread(BTTraversal order)
{
BTreeNode<T> *ret = nullptr;
LinkQueue<BTreeNode<T>*> queue;
traversal(order, queue);
ret = connect(queue);
this->m_root = nullptr;
m_queue.clear();
return ret;
}

文件:BTree.h

#ifndef BTREE_H
#define BTREE_H
#include "Tree.h"
#include "BTreeNode.h"
#include "Exception.h"
#include "LinkQueue.h"
#include "DynamicArray.h"
namespace DTLib
{
enum BTTraversal
{
PreOrder,
InOrder,
PostOrder,
LevelOrder
};
template <typename T>
class BTree : public Tree<T>
{
public:
BTree() = default;
bool insert(TreeNode<T> *node) override
{
return insert(node, ANY);
}
virtual bool insert(TreeNode<T> *node, BTNodePos pos)
{
bool ret = true;
if (node != nullptr)
{
if (this->m_root == nullptr)
{
node->parent = nullptr;
this->m_root = node;
}
else
{
BTreeNode<T> *np = find(node->parent);
if (np != nullptr)
{
ret = insert(dynamic_cast<BTreeNode<T>*>(node), np, pos);
}
else
{
THROW_EXCEPTION(InvalidParameterExcetion, "Invalid parent tree node ...");
}
}
}
else
{
THROW_EXCEPTION(InvalidParameterExcetion, "Parameter can not be null ...");
}
return ret;
}
bool insert(const T &value, TreeNode<T> *parent) override
{
return insert(value, parent, ANY);
}
virtual bool insert(const T &value, TreeNode<T> *parent, BTNodePos pos)
{
bool ret = true;
BTreeNode<T> *node = BTreeNode<T>::NewNode();
if (node != nullptr)
{
node->value = value;
node->parent = parent;
ret = insert(node, pos);
if (!ret)
{
delete node;
}
}
else
{
THROW_EXCEPTION(NoEnoughMemoryException, "No enough memory to create node ...");
}
return ret;
}
SharedPointer<Tree<T>> remove(const T &value) override
{
BTree<T> *ret = nullptr;
BTreeNode<T> *node = find(value);
if (node != nullptr)
{
remove(node, ret);
m_queue.clear();
}
else
{
THROW_EXCEPTION(InvalidParameterExcetion, "Can not find the tree node via value ...");
}
return ret;
}
SharedPointer<Tree<T>> remove(TreeNode<T> *node) override
{
BTree<T> *ret = nullptr;
node = find(node);
if (node != nullptr)
{
remove(dynamic_cast<BTreeNode<T>*>(node), ret);
m_queue.clear();
}
else
{
THROW_EXCEPTION(InvalidParameterExcetion, "Parameter node is invalid ...");
}
return ret;
}
BTreeNode<T>* find(const T &value) const override
{
return find(root(), value);
}
BTreeNode<T>* find(TreeNode<T> *node) const override
{
return find(root(), dynamic_cast<BTreeNode<T>*>(node));
}
BTreeNode<T>* root() const override
{
return dynamic_cast<BTreeNode<T>*>(this->m_root);
}
int degree() const override
{
return degree(root());
}
int count() const override
{
return count(root());
}
int height() const override
{
return height(root());
}
void clear() override
{
free(root());
this->m_root = nullptr;
}
bool begin() override
{
bool ret = (root() != nullptr);
if (ret)
{
m_queue.clear();
m_queue.add(root());
}
return ret;
}
bool end() override
{
return (m_queue.length() == 0);
}
bool next() override
{
bool ret = (m_queue.length() > 0);
if (ret)
{
BTreeNode<T> *node = m_queue.front();
m_queue.remove();
if (node->left != nullptr)
{
m_queue.add(node->left);
}
if (node->right != nullptr)
{
m_queue.add(node->right);
}
}
return ret;
}
T current() override
{
if (!end())
{
return m_queue.front()->value;
}
else
{
THROW_EXCEPTION(InvalidOpertionExcetion, "No value at current position ...");
}
}
SharedPointer<DynamicArray<T>> traversal(BTTraversal order) const
{
DynamicArray<T> *ret = nullptr;
LinkQueue<BTreeNode<T>*> queue;
traversal(order, queue);
ret = new DynamicArray<T>(queue.length());
if (ret != nullptr)
{
for (int i=0; i<ret->length(); ++i, queue.remove())
{
ret->set(i, queue.front()->value);
}
}
else
{
THROW_EXCEPTION(NoEnoughMemoryException, "No enough to create return array ...");
}
return ret;
}
BTreeNode<T> *thread(BTTraversal order)
{
BTreeNode<T> *ret = nullptr;
LinkQueue<BTreeNode<T>*> queue;
traversal(order, queue);
ret = connect(queue);
this->m_root = nullptr;
m_queue.clear();
return ret;
}
SharedPointer<BTree<T>> clone() const
{
BTree<T> *ret = new BTree<T>();
if (ret != nullptr)
{
ret->m_root = clone(root());
}
else
{
THROW_EXCEPTION(NoEnoughMemoryException, "No enough memory to create new tree ...");
}
return ret;
}
bool operator == (const BTree<T> &btree) const
{
return equal(root(), btree.root());
}
bool operator != (const BTree<T> &btree) const
{
return !(*this == btree);
}
SharedPointer<BTree<T>> add(const BTree<T> &btree) const
{
BTree<T> *ret = new BTree<T>();
if (ret != nullptr)
{
ret->m_root = add(root(), btree.root());
}
else
{
THROW_EXCEPTION(NoEnoughMemoryException, "No enough memory to create new tree ...");
}
return ret;
}
~BTree()
{
clear();
}
protected:
LinkQueue<BTreeNode<T>*> m_queue;
BTree(const BTree<T>&) = default;
BTree<T>& operator = (const BTree<T>&) = default;
virtual BTreeNode<T>* find(BTreeNode<T> *node, const T &value) const
{
BTreeNode<T> *ret = nullptr;
if (node != nullptr)
{
if (node->value == value)
{
ret = node;
}
else
{
if (ret == nullptr)
{
ret = find(node->left, value);
}
if (ret == nullptr)
{
ret = find(node->right, value);
}
}
}
return ret;
}
virtual BTreeNode<T>* find(BTreeNode<T> *node, BTreeNode<T> *obj) const
{
BTreeNode<T> *ret = nullptr;
if (node == obj)
{
ret = node;
}
else
{
if (node != nullptr)
{
if (ret == nullptr)
{
ret = find(node->left, obj);
}
if (ret == nullptr)
{
ret = find(node->right, obj);
}
}
}
return ret;
}
virtual bool insert(BTreeNode<T> *node, BTreeNode<T> *np, BTNodePos pos)
{
bool ret = true;
if (pos == ANY)
{
if (np->left == nullptr)
{
np->left = node;
}
else if (np->right == nullptr)
{
np->right = node;
}
else
{
ret = false;
}
}
else if (pos == LEFT)
{
if (np->left == nullptr)
{
np->left = node;
}
else
{
ret = false;
}
}
else if (pos == RIGHT)
{
if (np->right == nullptr)
{
np->right = node;
}
else
{
ret = false;
}
}
return ret;
}
virtual void remove(BTreeNode<T> *node, BTree<T> *&ret)
{
ret = new BTree<T>();
if (ret != nullptr)
{
if (root() == node)
{
this->m_root = nullptr;
}
else
{
BTreeNode<T> *parent = dynamic_cast<BTreeNode<T>*>(node->parent);
if (node == parent->left)
{
parent->left = nullptr;
}
else if (node == parent->right)
{
parent->right = nullptr;
}
node->parent = nullptr;
}
ret->m_root = node;
}
else
{
THROW_EXCEPTION(NoEnoughMemoryException, "No memory to create btree ...");
}
}
virtual void free(BTreeNode<T> *node)
{
if (node != nullptr)
{
free(node->left);
free(node->right);
if (node->flag())
{
delete node;
}
}
}
int count(BTreeNode<T> *node) const
{
return (node != nullptr) ? (count(node->left) + count(node->right) + 1) : 0;
}
int height(BTreeNode<T> *node) const
{
int ret = 0;
if (node != nullptr)
{
int lh = height(node->left);
int rh = height(node->right);
ret = ((lh > rh) ? lh : rh) + 1;
}
return ret;
}
int degree(BTreeNode<T> *node) const
{
int ret = 0;
if (node != nullptr)
{
BTreeNode<T> *child[] = {node->left, node->right};
ret = !!node->left + !!node->left;
for (int i=0; (i<2) && (ret<2); ++i)
{
int d = degree(child[i]);
if (ret < d)
{
ret = d;
}
}
}
return ret;
}
void traversal(BTTraversal order, LinkQueue<BTreeNode<T>*> &queue) const
{
switch (order)
{
case PreOrder:
PreOrderTraversal(root(), queue);
break;
case InOrder:
InOrderTraversal(root(), queue);
break;
case PostOrder:
PostOrderTraversal(root(), queue);
break;
case LevelOrder:
LevelOrderTraversal(root(), queue);
break;
}
}
void PreOrderTraversal(BTreeNode<T> *node, LinkQueue<BTreeNode<T>*> &queue) const
{
if (node != nullptr)
{
queue.add(node);
PreOrderTraversal(node->left, queue);
PreOrderTraversal(node->right, queue);
}
}
void InOrderTraversal(BTreeNode<T> *node, LinkQueue<BTreeNode<T>*> &queue) const
{
if (node != nullptr)
{
InOrderTraversal(node->left, queue);
queue.add(node);
InOrderTraversal(node->right, queue);
}
}
void PostOrderTraversal(BTreeNode<T> *node, LinkQueue<BTreeNode<T>*> &queue) const
{
if (node != nullptr)
{
PostOrderTraversal(node->left, queue);
PostOrderTraversal(node->right, queue);
queue.add(node);
}
}
void LevelOrderTraversal(BTreeNode<T> *node, LinkQueue<BTreeNode<T>*> &queue) const
{
if (node != nullptr)
{
LinkQueue<BTreeNode<T>*> tmp;
tmp.add(node);
while (tmp.length() > 0)
{
BTreeNode<T> *n = tmp.front();
if (n->left != nullptr)
{
tmp.add(n->left);
}
if (n->right != nullptr)
{
tmp.add(n->right);
}
tmp.remove();
queue.add(n);
}
}
}
BTreeNode<T> *connect(LinkQueue<BTreeNode<T>*> &queue)
{
BTreeNode<T> *ret = nullptr;
if (queue.length() > 0)
{
ret = queue.front();
BTreeNode<T> *slider = queue.front();
queue.remove();
slider->left = nullptr;
while (queue.length() > 0)
{
slider->right = queue.front();
queue.front()->left = slider;
slider = queue.front();
queue.remove();
}
slider->right = nullptr;
}
return ret;
}
BTreeNode<T> *clone(BTreeNode<T> *node) const
{
BTreeNode<T> *ret = nullptr;
if (node != nullptr)
{
ret = BTreeNode<T>::NewNode();
if (ret != nullptr)
{
ret->value = node->value;
ret->left = clone(node->left);
ret->right = clone(node->right);
if (ret->left != nullptr)
{
ret->left->parent = ret;
}
if (ret->right != nullptr)
{
ret->right->parent = ret;
}
}
else
{
THROW_EXCEPTION(NoEnoughMemoryException, "No enough memory to create new node ...");
}
}
return ret;
}
bool equal(BTreeNode<T> *lh, BTreeNode<T> *rh) const
{
if (lh == rh)
{
return true;
}
else if ((lh != nullptr) && (rh != nullptr))
{
return (lh->value == rh->value) && equal(lh->left, rh->left) && equal(lh->right, rh->right);
}
else
{
return false;
}
}
BTreeNode<T> *add(BTreeNode<T> *lh, BTreeNode<T> *rh) const
{
BTreeNode<T> *ret = nullptr;
if ((lh != nullptr) && (rh == nullptr))
{
ret = clone(lh);
}
else if ((lh == nullptr) && (rh != nullptr))
{
ret = clone(rh);
}
else if ((lh != nullptr) && (rh != nullptr))
{
ret = BTreeNode<T>::NewNode();
if (ret != nullptr)
{
ret->value = lh->value + rh->value;
ret->left = add(lh->left, rh->left);
ret->right = add(lh->right, rh->right);
if (ret->left != nullptr)
{
ret->left->parent = ret;
}
if (ret->right != nullptr)
{
ret->right->parent = ret;
}
}
else
{
THROW_EXCEPTION(NoEnoughMemoryException, "No enough memory to create new node ...");
}
}
return ret;
}
};
}
#endif // BTREE_H

文件:main.cpp

#include <iostream>
#include "BTreeNode.h"
#include "BTree.h"
using namespace std;
using namespace DTLib;
int main()
{
BTree<int> bt;
BTreeNode<int> *n = nullptr;
bt.insert(1, nullptr);
n = bt.find(1);
bt.insert(2, n);
bt.insert(3, n);
n = bt.find(2);
bt.insert(4, n);
bt.insert(5, n);
n = bt.find(4);
bt.insert(8, n);
bt.insert(9, n);
n = bt.find(5);
bt.insert(10, n);
n = bt.find(3);
bt.insert(6, n);
bt.insert(7, n);
SharedPointer<DynamicArray<int>> sp = bt.traversal(LevelOrder);
for (int i=0; i<sp->length(); ++i)
{
cout << (*sp)[i] << " ";
}
cout << endl;
n = bt.thread(LevelOrder);
while (n != nullptr)
{
cout << n->value << " ";
n = n->right;
}
return 0;
}

输出:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

小结

  • 线索化是将二叉树转换为双向链表的过程
  • 线索化之后结点间的先后次序符合某种遍历次序
  • 线索化操作将破坏原二叉树结点间的父子关系
  • 线索化之后二叉树不再管理结点的生命周期
版权声明
本文为[TianSong]所创,转载请带上原文链接,感谢
https://segmentfault.com/a/1190000021748379